LAST UPDATED: October 23, 2020
EFFECTIVE DATE: October, 23 2020

For all ProQuest Sites, we collect "cookies," a tiny text document, which usually includes anonymous information about the user. Generally, when you visit a website, that site's computer asks your computer for permission to store cookies in an area of your hard drive specifically designed for this purpose. Cookies help sites understand your preferences so you can have a better user experience.

Managing Cookies

You may opt to turn off cookies on any ProQuest site, but you might not be able to access all aspects of it. We also have a Cookie Consent Manager that allows you to manage the cookies that we use before, during, and after your time on our sites. You can also manage Cookies on your own: you can delete the cookies after visiting the site or browse the site using your browser’s anonymous usage setting (called "Incognito" in Chrome, "InPrivate" for Internet Explorer, "Private Browsing" in Firefox and Safari, etc.) For more information on what cookies are, or how to control or delete them, visit for detailed guidance.

Types of cookies on ProQuest sites

The list below describes the cookies we use on this site and what we use them for.

First Party Cookies are set by this website directly. We use them in a variety of ways, including:

Site Performance cookies: This type of cookie remembers your preferences for tools found on ProQuest sites, so you don't have to re-set them each time you visit. For example, our servers may automatically record, and we may collect, information that your computer's browser sends whenever you visit any website. These server logs may include information such as the home server (including the institution) of the user, database or profiles accessed, searches performed, portions of site visited, web request(s), Internet Protocol address, research history, keyword searched, materials accessed, downloaded or printed, usage information, browser type, browser language, the date and time of your request(s) and one or more cookies that may uniquely identify your computer's browser. Our servers do not record or recognize names or email addresses of the user.

Anonymous Analytics Cookies: Every time a user visits our website, web analytics software provided by a third party generates an anonymous analytics cookie. These cookies can tell us whether or not you have visited the site before. Your browser will tell us if you have these cookies, and if you don't, we generate new ones. This allows us to track how many individual unique users we have, and how often they visit the site. These cookies cannot be used to identify individuals; they are used for statistical purposes only.

Geotargeting cookies: These cookies are used by software which tries to determine what country you are in from information supplied by your browser when it requests a web page. This cookie is completely anonymous and is only used to help target content.

Registration and Session cookies: When you register with ProQuest Sites, we generate cookies that signal whether you are signed in or not. Our servers use these cookies to work out which account you are signed in with, and if you are allowed access to a particular service. It also allows us to associate any comments you post with your username. If you have not selected 'keep me signed in,' your cookies get deleted when you either close your browser or shut down your computer. While you are signed to ProQuest Sites, we combine information from your registration cookies with analytics cookies, which we could use to identify which pages you have seen on the ProQuest Sites as an individual.

Examples include allowing you to store your password so that you may access the ProQuest Sites without having to enter certain authenticating information each time, or to enable you to see, track and/or store such information as your log in information, previous searches and/or research sessions, databases accessed, and other information. More information on session cookies and what they are used for at

Interest-based Ads and Social Media

Targeting Cookies – Interest-based Ads. These cookies record your visit to the website, the pages you have visited and the links you have followed. We may use this information to make your time on our website more relevant to your interests. We may also share this information with third parties for marketing our products and services to you. Specifically, we use cookies from third parties for marketing purposes (interest based online advertising) that allow us to display ProQuest’s promotional material to you on other sites you visit across the internet based on your visits to our websites (such as remarketing through Google Ads).

ProQuest does not use targeting cookies within its ProQuest Services. Targeting cookies are used only on the ProQuest general information, product information and marketing websites.

Third Party Cookies – Sharing Functionality

These are cookies set on your machine by external websites whose services are used on this site. Examples include the sharing buttons that allow visitors to share content onto social networks. In order to activate these buttons and connect them to the relevant social networks and external sites, there are scripts from domains outside of our website. Note that these sites are likely to be collecting information about what you are doing all around the internet, including on this website. Check the respective policies of each of these sites to see how they use your information and learn how to opt out, or delete, such information.

On some pages of the ProQuest network, third parties may also set their own anonymous cookies for the purposes of tracking the success of their application or customizing the application for you. ProQuest cannot access these cookies and the third parties cannot access the data in cookies used by the ProQuest Sites.

You Can Opt-Out Any Time

You have control over cookies. You can opt out of cookies through your web browser controls or through the Cookie Consent Manager on our website. Note that disabling certain cookies may impact the functionality of our websites.

You may also visit to view detailed information about deleting cookies, controlling cookies, and adjusting cookie settings on a wide variety of browsers.

You can find out more information about how you can opt out of Google's use of cookies or device identifiers by visiting Google's Ads Settings.

In addition, you may opt-out of some third party cookies through the Network Advertising Initiative’s Opt-Out Tool and the Digital Advertising Alliance's WebChoices Tool.